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文章发布:奇速英语 发布时间:Nov 2, 2016 2:35:02 PM      访问量:1101




above all/after all/at all/in all/all but的用法

1、above all/after all/at all/in all/all but

①above all 首先,特别是,最重要的是

Children need many things ,but above all they need love. 

②after all 到底,毕竟

The day turned out fine after all. 

③at all (用来加强语气)与not连用,表示“一点也不,完全不”。

He wasn’t at all tired.

Do you feel ill at all(真的,确实)?

④ in all  总共

There were twenty in all at the party. 

⑤ all but 几乎,差点没(=almost,nearly)

We have all but finished the work.

2、accident/event/ incident


The broadcaster is broadcasting the news on current events.广播员正在播报时事新闻。


He was badly injured in the traffic accident.在那起交通事故中,他严重受伤。


There was an incident on the bus: a man fought with the conductor.那辆公共汽车上发生了一件事,有个人和售票员打了起来。

Have you heard of Xi’an Incident?你听说过“西安事变”吗?

3、admit vt.

①接纳,许可……进入(allow sb./s

th.to enter)

He was admitted to the school this year.Only two hundred boys and girls are admitted to our school every year.

②承认,后可接名词, doing、从句或复合结构。

I admit my fault. She admitted having read the letter. He admitted that his comprehension was weak.

You must admit the task to be difficult.



admire(= respect / praise)vt.羡慕,钦佩,夸奖

admire sb.(for sth.)佩服某人某事

Visitors to Beijing greatly admire our Palace Museum.  去北京的游人极其羡慕我们的故宫。

I admire him for his wisdom.我佩服他的智慧。  别忘了夸奖孩子。

对比:envy(= jealous)vt.嫉妨,羡慕

envy sb.(sth.)嫉妒/羡慕某人某事  We all envy you your good future.  我们都很羡慕你的好运。


affect(=have an effect on sth.)vt.影响(effect n.影响)

This may affect your health.  这或许会影响你的健康。

My throat is always affected by bad weather.我的嗓子总是受恶劣天气的影响。


1)“be afraid of+名词”,意为“害怕”。

2)“be afraid of doing sth”意为“担心,害怕……”。

3)“be afraid for…”意为“为……担心。”

4)“be afraid that…”意为“担心,恐怕”。

5)“be afraid to do ”意为“害怕,担心而不敢做某事”。

6)I’m afraid so/not.恐怕是这样/恐怕不会这样


①女孩子一般都怕蛇。Girls are usually______ _____snakes.

②他怕把杯子打碎,因而很小心。He was careful because

he was afraid______ _____the glass.

③你不为自己的安全担心吗?Are you afraid_______your safety?

④恐怕她会迷路。I am _____  _____she will lose her way.

⑤汤姆把钱丢了,也不敢告诉他母亲。Tom lost the money and was afraid________ ______his mother.

Key:①afraid,of ②of,breaking ③for ④afraid,that ⑤to tell

advise /persuade/suggest的区别


advice建议;劝告。是不可数名词,“一条建议”应用a piece of advice。常用结构。

give sb.advice(on)/give advice给某人提(关于……的)建议;忠告某人。

ask(sb.)for advice征求(某人的)意见。

①Marx gave us some good advice on how to learn a foreign language.


②If you take /follow my advice, you’ll pass the exam.如果你听从我的建议,你会考试及格的。

③Let’s ask our teacher for some advice.咱们征求一下老师的意见吧。

advise sb. to do sth.建议某人做某事(suggest不这样用)。

①I advise you to take the chance.我建议你抓住机会。

②—What do you advise me to do?你建议我怎么办?

—I advise you not to lose heart; just keep on.我劝你不要灰心,继续干。

advise 还可同suggest一样,后接名词、代词、动名词(短语)和that从句(用虚拟语气)作宾语。

①—What would you advise?你有什么建议吗?—I advise you an early start我建议你早点出发。

②I advise holding a metting to discuss the problem.我建议召开一次会议来讨论这个问题。

③I advise you (should) go to once.我建议你马上去。

advise /persuade  

persuade sb. to do sth.意为“说服某人做某事”,强调劝说成功,说服;advise sb. to do sth. 意为“劝说某人做某事”,不涉及劝说是否有效,相当于try to persuade sb. to do sth.。如:

The doctor persuaded my father to give up smoking.医生说服我爸爸戒了烟。

The doctor advised my father to give up smoking, but failed.医生劝我爸爸戒烟,但没成功。


advise 与suggest 都可作“建议”讲,二者用法有同有异。


①+ 名词

②+ 动名词

③+ that从句(从句中常用should加动词原形,should可以省略。)

eg:He advised/ suggested an early start.

He advised/ suggested (our) starting early.

He advised/ suggested that we (should) start early.


It was suggested that we (should) start early.

What he suggested was that we(should) start early.

 His suggestion was that we (should) start early.



advise sb. to do sth.; advise sb. against (doing) sth.; advise sb. on/ about sth.; suggest(to sb.)that...



He advised us to go to visit the museum.

He suggested us to go to visit the museum.

He suggested us that we go to visit the museum.


The smile on his face suggested that he was pleased.

Having examined carefully, the doctor suggested that the patient was seriously ill.(句中suggest陈述了一个事实,故用陈述语气。)比较:

Having examined carefully, the doctor suggested that the Patient be

operated on at once.(句中suggest表示建议该做某事,从句中用should加动词原形,should在从句中省略。)


1、again and again

again and again = time and time again = over and over = over and over again再三地

The old man thinks of his happy past again and again. 这位老人再三地想起他幸福的过去。



The old man died at the age of 80/when he was 80 years of age/when he was 80 years old.那位老人80岁时去世了。

He is young for his age.  就他的年龄而论,他是年轻的。

What is the age of the church?  这座教堂多少年了?

He was the greatest poet of the age.  他是那个时代最伟大的诗人。

(2)vi./vt. 变老

He is aging fast. Worry ages a man.  他老得很快。忧虑令人老!

I found him greatly aged.  我发现他老多了。

拓展:(1)adj. aged……岁的,年老的

a boy aged ten 一个10岁的男孩  an aged man老人


baby→infant→child→youth→manhood→middle age→old age




go ahead朝前走,请便(同意对方继续干或同意对方的请求);go ahead (on)with…继续;ahead of在……前面,早于,优先;ahead of time提前


①他朝前走去看看发生了什么事情。He ________ ________ to see what had happened.

②我可以坐这个座位吗?请坐吧。May I take this seat?________ _______.

③那年轻人走在游行队伍最前面。The young man walked at the_______ _______parade.

④她比我早到2个小时。She arrived two hours _______ _______me.

⑤他们已提前三周完成了设计。They have completed the design _______ ______ _______ _______time.

Key:①went,ahead ②Go,ahead③ahead,of ④ahead,of⑤three,weeks,ahead,of



agree 同意。常用桔构:

(1)agree on 对……取得一致意见或达成协议,一般表示原双方共同商讨以后达成协议的名词)。主语必须是两者以上。也常用被动语态,表示“(某事)是大家都同意的”。  如:

①They agreed on the date for the next meeting.对下次会议的日期他们达成了一致意见。

②At last,the plan was agreed on. 最后,这项计划通过了。

③I don’t agree with you to this arrangement, but perhaps, after a discussion we will agree on this project.我不赞同你在这件事的安排,但或许在协商之后我们可以就这个工程达成共识。

(2)agree to 同意;赞成。to 为介词,后接表示“建议;办法;计划”等名词。

①Do you agree to my plan?你同意我的计划吗?

②The headmaster has agreed to our suggestion for the holiday.校长同意了我们度假的建议。

(3)agree with同意;赞成。后接sb. 或what 从句。

I agree with you ,but I don’t agree with what he said.我同意你的意见,但我不同意他所说的。另外,agree with还有“与……相适应/相一致”的意思。

The climate here doesn’t agree with me .我不适应这里的气候。

(4)agree to do sth.同意、答应做某事。

Do you agree to go with us if we agree to lend you some money?如果我们答应借钱给你,你同意和我们一起去吗?



1)lovely意“可爱的”,“美好的”如:a lovely day 美好的一天   a  lovely girl 可爱的女孩

2)alive 意为“活着的、有活力的”,是表语形容词,可修饰人、物;在句中做表语宾补和或后置定词,不能用作前置定语。如

He was alive when he was taken to the hospital.他被送往医院时还活着。

Although he is old, he is still very much alive.虽然年老了,但他仍十分活跃。

The fish is still alive/living.那条鱼还活着。

Keep him alive, please.请让他活下去吧。

He is the only man alive in the accident.他是事故中惟一活着的人。

After the war , he remained alive.战后他还活着。

Those alive will gather here. 活着的人将在此相聚。

3)living 意为“活着的、有生命的”,主要用于作前置定语及冠词the 之后表示一类人,也可用作表语,可修饰人或物。如:

a living plant   活的植物        all living things    所有生物         the living    在世者,活着的人们

The living will go on with the work of the dead.活着的人将继续死者的工作。

Latin is not a living language. 拉丁语不是现代使用的语言。

He is still living at the age of 95.95岁了他还活着。


(1)(动、植物)“活的”,“有生命的”,“活生生的,主要用来说鸟或其它动物,作前置定语;如:a live fish一条活鱼 a live tiger  一只活老虎

(2)实况的,现场直播的;如:a live report现场报道    a live show/broadcast/TV program现场转播的表演/实况广播/现场直播的电视节目    living有精神的,活泼的,快活的,轻快的

Her grandfather is still living at the age of 93.她爷爷已经93岁了,仍然健在。

5)lively 意为“活泼的”,“有生气的”, “生动的”

“生动的”,可用作表语、定语,指人或物。如:a lively child 活泼的孩子    a lively description  

生动的描述如:a lively mind 活跃的头脑   a lively discussion 热烈的讨论

a way of making one’ s classes lively   使课堂生动的方法

He told a lively story about his life in Africa. 他讲述了一个有关他的非洲生活的一个生动故事。

Young children are usually lively.  年轻人通常很活泼。

3、all the same

all the same adj.都一样;无所谓(to+n.)

①You can stay or leave now;It’s all the same to me.

②It’s all the same to me whether we’ll go there today or tomorrow.


Thank you all the same.

all the year round 全年,一年到头

In the west coast of Canada,it rains all the year round.




allow / permit sb .to do sth .允许某人做某事

allow / permit doing sth . 允许做某事。此时动词只用ing 形式。

反义词forbid 具有同样用法。


许多情况下可换用,只是词意的强弱上有差异。allow语意较弱,含有“听任”,“默许”,“不加阻止”的意思;permit 语意较强,强调 “正式认可”,“批准”的意思。如:

The nurse allowed him to remain there ,though it was not permitted.护士让他留在那里,虽然这时(规定)不允许的。


amaze vt.使……惊奇= astonish, surprise

The news amazed us greatly.这条消息使我们感到很惊奇。


They were all amazed at the amazing news.  听到这个令人吃惊的消息他们感到惊讶。

(2)amazement n.

 to one’s amazement令人吃惊的是

To my amazement, they have gone to Xishuangbanna.  让我奇怪的是,他们去西双版纳了。

类似短语:to one’s happiness/excitement/sadness/puzzlement    使某人高兴的/兴奋的/伤心的/迷惑的是

3、announce/ explain/ introduce/ declare

announce, explain, introduce, declare后面不接双宾语,若以人作宾语常置于to后。如:

The president announced to the workers the sad news.

The president announced the sad news to the workers.总裁向工人宣布了那不幸的消息。

He introduced the new comer to everyone here.他把新来的那个人介绍给这里的每个人。

report to sb.向某人汇报        report sth/sb.to sb.向某人汇报/告诉。


①The teacher explained his students how to use the computer.

②No one declared us we could not smoke here.

Key:①explain后加to    ②declare后加to

another day/the other day的用法

1、another day/the other day/some day/one day

another day 可表示近期将来的某一天,意为“改天”,也可表示过去将来某一动作或状态延续的“又一天”。如:

She is coming another day instead of today. 她今天不来,改天来。

You may do it another day.你可以改天做这件事。

He stayed there (for) another day/another two days after I lift.我离开后他在那又待了一天/两天。

the other day 相当于a few days ago,意为“几天前、某天、那天、不久前”,句中用一般过去时。如:

I met her in the street the other day.几天前我在街上碰见过她。

I bought the watch the other day.这手表我是几天前买的。

some day 指将来“总有一天、有朝一日、终将、(日后)某一天”,谓语动词用一般将来时.如:

Your wishes will come true some day.总有一天你的愿望会实现的。

Some day you’ll have to pay for what you have done.总有一天你要为你的行为而付出代价的。

one day 可以表示“(过去)某一天”,谓语动词常用一般过去式;也可表示“(将来)某一天”,这时可与some day互相代替,谓语常用一般将来时。如:

One day I went to see my first teacher ,but he happened to be out.有一天,我去看我的启蒙老师,可碰巧他出去了。

He will understand the teacher one day/some day.将来有一天,他会理解老师的。

2、and so on

and so on : etc 等等。用来表示列举,但又不一一列出。

He knows five foreign languages, English, French, Japanese and so on.他懂5种外语,如英语、法语、日语等等。


两个词均有“渴望,急于”之意。anxious 着重指焦急、着急或担心;而eager着重指对成功的期望或进取的热情。两者都多用作表语,其主语通常是人,不能以无生命的事物作主语。对比:

He is eager to join the army.他渴望参军。

He is anxious to know whether he has been chosen.他急于知道是否被选上了。


①be anxious to do sth.渴望急切地做某事;be anxious for渴望(了解、得到);

be anxious about担心,对……感到不安

②be eager to do sth.急切地想做某事;

 be eager for (about, after)渴望,渴求,

be eager for your help渴望得到你的帮助;

be eager about peace渴望和平


The students ________ ________ ________ ________ the results ofthe examination.

②那个小男孩渴望得到一台新录音机。The little boy was ________ ________a new recorder.

③我很担心我儿子的健康。I’m ________ ________my son’s health.

④他殷切希望女儿的成功。He is __________ _________ his daughter’s success.

Key:①are, anxious(eager),to ,know②anxious(eager),for③anxious, about④eager, for(about, after)



apologize是不及物动词,意为“道歉”,其表达式为“apologize to sb.for sth.”。如:

You must apologize to your sister for being so rude.它的名词形式是apology, 复数形式是apologizes.

make one’s apologies to sb. for sth.= make an apology to sb. for sth.如:

He make his apologies to me for coming late.


As a result, it appered to scientists on earth that the stars had moved.因此,地球上的科学家看来,恒星好像是移动了。

句型:It appears/seems(to sb.) +that—clause.看来/似乎是……

①It appears to me that something is wrong.我看好像有点不大对头。

②It appears that he will the prize.看来他会得笑。


appear, seem, look都有“看起来似……”之意,但其暗含意思和用法又各有不同。



He appears to know more than he really does。他看起来好像懂得很多。(其实懂得没有那么多)


His health seems to be better.他的健康状况似乎有所好转。


He doesn’t look his age.他看起来比实际年龄年轻(或老成)。



(to + be)+表语(adj.或n.或prep.)

+to v.

It + ~ +(that)从句如:

He seems/appears(to be)very sad today.=It seems that he is very sad today.

It seems like years since I saw you last time.

He seems a kind doctor.(=It seems that he is a kind doctor.)

He seems/appears to have caught a cold.=It seems/appears that he has caught a cold.


look当“看起来似乎…和as if从句。如:He looks strong.    She looks like her mother.    It looks as if we are going to miss the train.…”讲时,可接形容词、过去分词、名词、介词短语

area/ district的区别

1、area/ district

(1)area表示 “地区、区域”,是普通用词,暗示一个较大的,可能是没有清楚界限的地区,不能用来指行政上的地理单位。如:

The old man lives in a mountain area.这位老人生活在山东。

This is a less developed area.这是个欠发达地区。

Most of the large land areas are connected.多数大块陆地是相连的。


Where is the Distr

ict of Columbia?哥伦比亚特区在什么地方?

The old man used to work in the jin-Cha-Ji Military District.那位老人曾经在晋察冀军区工作。

The northeast part of the city is the residential district.这城市的东北部是住宅区。

2、take…in one’s arms


He went into classroom, taking some books in his arms.

As a child….:As/When he was a child…,小的时候,该句型中的as为连词,意为“在……的时候”,引导时间状语从句。当从句与主句主语一致,且从句谓语为be时,可将从句主语及be省略。

①Even as(he was)a student,Professor Smith showed great interest in maths.甚至上学的时候,史密斯教授对数学就很感兴趣。

②As(he was)a boy,he liked playing table tennis with the grown-ups.小时候,他就喜欢和大人们打乒乓球。


as a result


She got up very early. As a result, she was able to catch the early bus.她起得很早,因此她赶上了早班车。

He has won the game. He is in high spirits as a result. 他赢了比赛,所以他精神高昂。

He runs every day .As a result , he has lost weight .他每天跑步,结果他减肥了。

as a result of 作为……的结果,as a result of……的结果是

As a result of exercise , he has built up his health.

 The flight was de

layed as a result of typhoon


result in = lead to 导致,造成……结果,如:

Hard work results in success.努力终归成功。(= Success results from hard work.成功来自努力)

 Hard work results in success. 勤奋才会成功。

result from 由……产生的结果,如:

Success results from hard work. 成功来自勤奋。

His illness resulted from overwork.  他的病起因于操劳过渡。



(1)...as+形容词(副词)原级+as...;not as/so+形容词(副词)原级+as...

Their factory is as large as ours.他们的工厂和我们的一样大。

I study as hard as you.我和你一样用功学习。

He doesn’t get up as/ so early as his parents.他不像他父母那样早起床。

(2)……倍数+  as + 形容词(副词)原级+as...

Line AB is 3 times as long as Line CD.=Line AB is twice longer than/3 times the length of Line CD.线段AB是线段CD长的3倍。

(3)as + 形容词+ a/an +单数可数名词+ as; as + 形容词+复数名词+ as

She is as good many records as possible.我们需要尽量多的唱片。

There is as much sugar in it as eight pieces of sugar.其中的含糖量相当于八块方糖。

I have’t got as much money as I thought.我没有原来想象的那么多钱。

(4)as/so long as 只要;如果

You may use that dictionary as long as you take care of it.只要你好好保存,你可以用那本词典。

as a matter of fact=in fact事实上、实际上……

It seems easy,but as a matter of fact,it’ll take us a long time to work it out.


(5)as much/ many as多达……,……那么多

On Sports Day, during the relay race, you will use most of all, perhaps as much as 650 calories an hour.在运动会上,进行接力赛跑时,你消耗的能量最多,可能每小时多达650卡。

As many as 700 different languages are spoken in Africa.非洲有多达700种不同的语言。

He didn’t catch as many as he’d hoped.他没有捉住预想的那么多。

(6)as...as possible; as... as one can

The teacher should write the words on th

e blackboard as carefully as he can. =The teacher should write the words on the blackboard as carefully as possible.老师在黑板上应尽可能仔细地把字写好。

Please be as friendly as possible to your friends.=Please be as friendly as you can.请对你的朋友尽可能友好。

(7)as...as + 年代数字/名词

As early as 1950 I knew him.早在1950 年我就认识他了。

He walked as far as the post office.他步行到邮局。

(8)as/so far as I know

As/ So for as I know, he will be away from home for 3 months.就我所知,他


(9)as soon as—……就……

Please let us know as soon as you arrive in Bejing.一到北京,请通知我们一声。

(10)as well as 和;也;还有

He gave me money as well as advice.他除了给我忠告外,还给我钱。

He studies French as well as English.他不但学习英语,而且学习法语。


1)as(so)far as 和……一样远,远至(原级比较或表示距离);就……来讲

2)as(so)long as 和……一样长(原级比较);只要(引导条件状语从句)

3)as well as和……一样好;既……也……(连接并列成分)

4)as good as和……一样好;事实上(作状语)


①油漆后的这辆自行车和新的一样。Painted, this bike is _______ _____ ______ a new one.

②他和他的父母对我都很好。He _______ ______ ______his parents is kind to me.

③晚饭后我们一直到走山脚下。After supper we walked______ _____ ______the foot of the hill.

④就我所知,他将离开两个月。______ ______ ______I know, he’ll be away for two months.

⑤只要努力,你一定会成功。________ ________ _______you work hard, you’ll succeed in time.

⑥这座新建的桥据说和旧的一样长。This newly –built bridge is said to be _____ ____  ___the old one.

Key:①as good as ②as well as ③as far as ④As, far,as ⑤As/so,long,as ⑥as,long,as

as if可用as though替换,在此引导表语从句,另外它们也可引导状语从句,从句既可用陈述语气,也可用虚拟语气。如:

①It looks as if /though it’s going to rain.(陈述语气)

②You look as if you’d seen a ghost.(虚拟语气)

as is the case with = as with ……就和……的情况一样

As is the case with his mother, he is fond of music.  跟母亲一样,他喜欢音乐。

As with human, animals also love their babies.  同人一样,动物也爱它们的幼仔。

as good as

as good as 作为固定词组意为“几乎一样”,“实际上等于”,作为同级比较结构,意为“和……一样好”。如:

①He is as good at English as me.②My bike is as good as yours.

…as it is


如:He decided to buy the house as it is.

as long as/so long as只要


You may borrow the book as / so long as you keep it clean.  只要你不把书弄脏,你就可以借。

You will succeed so long as you work hard.  只要你努力就会成功。

As long as you study hard, you’ll make great progress. 只要你努力学习,你就会取得很大进步。


This rope is as long as that one.这条绳子和那条一样长。

This bridge isn’t so/as long as that one.这座桥和那座不一样长。


The old couple have been living in the small town as long as 50 years.这对老夫妇已在这个小城镇里住了长达50年。

as well/ as well as

as well 表示“也”,是副词短语,用作状语,通常放在句末,也可放在主语之后,相当于too,但一般无标点符号与句子隔开.as well as 通常看作一个复合并列连词,连接两个成分相同的词、短语或句子,表示“既……又……,不但……而且……”当它连接两个主语时,谓语动词的人称和数要与第一个主语保持一致。如:

The children learn to read, write and they play games as well.孩子们学习读书写字,他们也做游戏。

With television,we can see a picture as well as hear sound.利用电视,我们既能听到声音,又能看到图像.

Tom,as well as his parents,likes pop music.汤姆以及他的父母都喜欢流行音乐。



ask for 要求,请求

ask sb.for sth.向(某人)请求(要求)……

She asked for some advice on how to learn English well.



at a high/low price以高价/;低价;at 40 miles an hour 以每小时40英里的速度;at a high/low speed以高速/慢速;at an ordinary speed以普通速度;at full/top speed以全速/高速;at a speed of 以……速度。



The company decided to sell the TV sets _   __ _   __ __   _        。


The train was running ______ _____ ______ _______150 miles an hour .

Key:①at, a, low, price②at,a, speed,of


at work 在工作;at table在吃饭;at play 在做游戏;at sea 出海;at university/college在

上学;at night school在上夜校;at dinner/table在吃饭;at peace处于和平状态;at war在交战,在打仗


①别人在工作,不要吵闹。Don’t make any noise while others are ______ ________.


The children were ______ ________ while their parents were_______ _______.

Key:①at, work②at,play,at,dinneras


as many as 和……一样多/多达;as much as 和……一样多/多达(注意:many指可数的量,much 指不可数词的量);as high as 和……一样高/高达;as thick as 和……一样厚/厚达;as long as 一样长/长达;as deep as 一样深/深达;as early as 一样早/早在……时候,如:

 We have as many books as they.我们的书和他们的一样多。/The great fire burned down as many as twenty buildings.大火烧毁的大楼多达20座。




Key:①The new bridge is as long as the old one./The kind of fish can grow as long as 15 feet.

②This mountain is as high as another one in the distance./This mountain is as high as 4,000 metres.

as…as possible:as…as one can尽可能地…….

①I’ll come back as soon as possible.我尽可能地……

②Get up as early as possible tomorrow morning. 明天早晨尽量早起。



as/ which 都能引导限制性或非限制性的定语从句。



Then grow some tomatoes in one box which has plant food in the soil and some in another box which doesn’t.

But the studios(which)he started are still busy today, producing more and more interesting films.

②as从句的先行词是the same/such或被the same/such修饰;as可作主、宾、表语,一律不可省略。如:Many of the sports were the same as they are now.(as作表语)

He uses the same map as I (use).他和我用的是同一份地图。(as作宾语)

Such as beautiful park as is being built was designed by two young engineers.正在建造的如此漂亮的公园是由两个年轻的工程师设计的。(as作主语)

The printed newspaper was not such as the chief editor had expected. 印好的报纸并非如主编原来所期望的那样。(as作宾语)



At present,the biggest nature park for milu deer in China is in the Nanhaizi Milu Park,which is about 20 kilometres south of Beijing.(位置)

China Daily has plenty of advertisements, which help to cut the costs of making the newspaper.(用途)

One of Charile Chaplin’s most famous fil

ms was“The Gold Rush”,which was made in 1925.(时间)


however,the maters of this great lake,which is also the World’s deepest(over 1,740 metres), have been dirtied by waste from a chemical factory.(特征)

②which从句还可表示说话人的看法,也可对主句作意义上的补充;which=and it/ this/ that/ they;which代表的是先行词、主句或主句的一部分;which从句只能放在先行词或主句后。如:

He said she could speak 4 foreign languages, which(=and it)is not true.他说她会四门外语,这是不可能的。(说话人看法,which代表宾语从句部分)

比较:He said she could speak 4 foreign languages, which(=and that)surprised every one of us.他说她会四门外语,这使我们每个人都很惊讶。(补充主句,which 代表主句)

Leaves are turning yellow, which means autumn is coming.  树叶正在变黄,这意味着秋天就要来了。


The Nanjing Changj

iang River Bridge,as we all know, was compl-

eted in 1969.我们都知道南京长江大桥,它建成于一九六九年。(as代表先行词)

To shut your eyes to facts, as many of you do, is foolish.(如)你们许多人(所做的那样)对事实视而不见是愚蠢的。(as代表主语部分)

As we know, the earth is round.  我们知道,地球是圆的。

2、keep out of = keep sth.(sb.)out of

keep out of = keep sth.(sb.)out of不使入内;不牵涉进去。

①Warm clothing will keep the cold out.保暖的衣服可御寒。

②Keep out of their quarrels.不要参与他们争吵。

3、attention  短语

pay attention to sth.  注意某事

draw one’s attention(to sth.)  引起某人的注意

be worth one’s attention  值得某人注意

bring one’s attention to sth.  叫某人注意某事

be certain/ be sure的用法

1、be certain/ be sure

be uncertain about意思是“对……不确定(没把握)”


 (1)be certain(sure) to do sth.“肯定会做……”(表示某事将要发生)。如:

He is certain(sure) to come next Sunday.

(2)be certain(sure) of/ about sth.“确信、有把握”(表示某个人的思想状态)。如:

We are certain/ sure of victory.


It is certain that he will come.

2、be different from  与……不同

Your idea is different from mine.  你的想法和我的不同。

对比:make sb./ sth. different from使某人/某物不同于……

Her special accent makes her different from others.  她特殊的口音使她与众不同。

3、be familiar with/be familiar to

be familiar with的主语是有生命的事,意为“某人对人、事熟悉”;be familiar to 的主语是无生命的事物,意为“某人/事为某人所熟悉”,对比:He is very familiar with the names of plants in English.他很熟悉植物的英语名称。Suzhou and Hangzhou are familiar to many foreigners.苏州和杭州为许多外国人所熟悉。

I’m not familiar with European history./European history is not familiar to me.我对欧洲历史不太熟悉。

注意:be familiar with/to   还表示“精通、通晓”

如:French is as familiar to him as English.他对法语就象对英语一样精通。




Key:①These facts are familiar to every schoolboy./Every shoolboy is familiar with these facts.

②She is familiar with four languages./Four languages are familiar to her.

be filled with 、be full of的用法

1、be filled with = be full of

be filled with = be full of 充满,装满  如:

 The bottle is filled with water .瓶子里装满了水。

注意:Filled with courage , he went into the cave .此处filled 表示“充满了的”指处于一种状态。

比较:be crowded with 挤满的,与be filled with 有所不同。如:

The room is crowded with guests.房间里挤满了客人。


Fill the bottle with sand .把瓶子装满沙子。

Fill in the blanks .填空。

be full of…→be filled with…充满…

①The classroom was full of students.教室里挤满了学生。

②Her eyes were full of tears.她眼泪汪汪的。

2、be likely to

be likely to 易于……;有可能的.  后跟动词不定式,往往用在一时的情形。

I shall be likely to catch cold if I go out tonight without my overcoat.如果今晚不穿大衣出去,我会感冒的。

Is that magazine likely to interest you?  那本杂志对你有吸引力吗?

3、be of…结构小结

(1)be of + 表示年龄(age)、大小(size)、颜色(color)、重量(weight)、高度(height)、价格(price)、意见(opinion)、形状(shape)、种类(kind)和方法(way)等名词,说明主语的特征,of表示“具有”之意,有时可省去。例如:

They are both of middle height.他俩都是中等个儿。

When I was of your age, I was a teacher.当我是你这个年龄时,我当老师了。

These flowers are of different colors.这些花朵颜色不同。

Tom is of a different way of thinking.汤姆的思维方式与别人不同。

注意:此结构中,如果of后面的名词前有不定冠词a/an,则a/an=the same.例如:

 The two boys are of an/the same age.这两个男孩同龄。

These bottles are of a/the same size.这些瓶子大小一样。

(2)be of + 物质名词,表示主语是由某材料制成或某成分构成,相当于be made of, be built of或be made up of等。例如:

The necklace is(made)of glass.这项链是玻璃制的。

The bridge is (built)of stone.这桥是由石头构筑的。

Our class is (made up)of over 50 students. 我班有50多个学生。

(3)be of + 抽象名词(如value, importance,use, help等),of表示“具有、具备”等意思,of不能省,这一结构相当于be+该抽象名词相应的形容词。例如:

They are of great help/ very helpful to learners of English.他们对英语学习者来说是很有帮助的。

In fact, sports and games can be of great value/very valuable.事实上体育运动是很有价值的。

The book is of no use/useless to us.这书对我们无用。

It is of great importance/very important to study English.学习英语很重要。

因此,根据上述(1),(2)点可以看出,课文句中第一个be of 结构表示“具有”,第二个be of(承前省去be)表示“由……制成的”。全句汉语意思为:“硬币的大小、重量、形状可能各不相同,并由不同的金属制成。”

come to



①Let me ask you a question. 让我问你个问题。

②He has decided tha question. 他解决了这个问题。


①He was questioned by the teacher. 他受到老师的质问。

②I question the truth of the story. 我怀疑这个故事的真实性。

question vt.询问,盘问,提问

You have no right to question me. 你无权盘问我。

He was questioned by the police. 警察盘问了他。

The teacher question us on verbs. 老师就动词考问我们。

常用短语:ask sb. a question 问某人问题     question(v.)sb. on就……提问某人

beyond(all)question 毫无疑问

                out of question(certainly)毫无疑问

without question 毫无疑问          out of the question(quite impossible)不可能

2、quite/rather 与名词连用时冠词的位置

quite,rather表示“相当”意义与名词连用时,a/an可放在之前,亦可之后;但the 必须置于它们的前面。


ite a big house/a quite big house 相当大的一套房子;

 a quite easy problem/quite an easy problem 相当容易的一个问题;

a rather good player /rather a good player 相当不错的一名运动员;

the rather/quite tall tree. 那棵相当高的树。



It’ s _____ _____ cold day today.


He is ______ ______ _______artist.

Key: ①rather,a         ②quite,a,good

3、come to  达到,共计

The total cost of repairs came to about $100.


The things I bought came to 100 yuan.


The cost of the trip totaled/came to/added up to 1000 dollars.


in common/general

1、in common/ in general/ in particular/ in short

(1)in common(with) 与……有共同处、(和……)一样。如:

 They have nothing in common with one another. 他们相互毫无共同之处。

(2)in general 大体上、通常、一般说来。如:

In general boys like sports more than girls. 一般说来,男孩比女孩更喜欢运动。

(3)in particular= particularly 特别、尤其。如:

I noticed his eyes in particular, because they were very big.


(4)in short简单地说,总之。如:

The man, in short,is not to be trusted. 总之,那个人是不可信任的。

2、in future/ in the future/ for the future

in future 意思是“从今以后”。例如:

In future,be careful with your pronunciation. 今后要注意你的发音。

Such a bad habit must be got rid of in future. 今后成长须改掉这样的坏习惯。

in the furture 意思是“将来、今后的日期”,但不一定就是从今立即开始,而是将来的时间。例如:

No one can know what will happen in the future. 没有人知道将来会发生什么事。

My sister wants to be actress in the future. 我妹妹将来想当演员。

for the future 的意思是“就未来而论、今后”,作“今后”解时可与in


What are your plans for the future when you grow up? 你长大以后对你的未来有什么打算?

 For the future, we’ll  have to depend on ourselves. 今后我们得依靠自己。

3、I’m sorry(that)… 很抱歉……


①I’m sorry I can’t answer the question. 对不起我不会回答这个问题。

②I’m sorry that I broke your glass. 很抱歉我把你的杯子打破了。

in the hope of

1、in the hope of


 in the hope that 从句或 hoping to…。对比:

 They got up very early in the hope of catching the first bus.


注意:have the hope of…/ There be hope of… 有希望

对比:She has the hope of success.她有成功的希望。

There is still hope of persuading him to change his mind.




He went there in the hope of buying some fresh fish.

He Went there in the hope that he could buy some fresh fish.

He went there hoping to buy some fresh fish.

2、in the last few years

该短语意为“最近几年”,常和现在完成时连用,表示以前某时开始一直延续至说话时的动作或状态。in可被during或over 替换。常用的还有:during the past ten days过去的10天里;over the last 5 months过去的5个月里;in the past few weeks 过去的几周里。如:

 We’ve learned quite a lot of English over the past three years.



①Many factories were built in the last ten years in my hometown.

②Both my father and mother have been busy since the past few weeks.

Key:①改were 为have been             ②改since为for/ in/ over

3、in one’s will 在某人的遗嘱中

will 作为名词使用时意为“遗嘱”“意志力”或“强烈的愿望”。

Her death is god’s will, I suppose. 她的逝世是上帝的旨意,我估计。

Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者,事竟成。 

His strong will enables him to refuse all the worldly pleaseres.


instead of

instead of 是短语介词,意思是“代替、而不”,后接名词、代词、动名词,有时接动词原形、不定式、形容词等。如:

I’ll take that book instead of this one. 我要那本书不要这一本。

You should give him advice instead of money. 你应给他忠告而不是金钱。

Things are now better instead of worse. 目前情况是好转而不是恶化。

We made the trip by train instead of by car. 我们是乘火车旅行的,不是乘汽车。

A word of encouragement might have made me respect instead of hating him.


Instead of putting it off till the next day, he started working right away.


2、instead of/ instead/ in place of/ take the place of

He went to attend the meeting instead of me .

I was ill so he went to attend the meeting ins

tead .

注意:instead 可用于句首,表示“相反的”。如:

She never studies .Instead, she plays tennis all day. 她从不学习。相反地,她整天打网球。

in place of 很多时候可与instead of 换用,但更强调“取代”之意。如:

He isn’t fit for the job, so I’ll do it in place of him. 他胜任不了这项工作,我要代他做。

take the place of 是动词短词,在句中做谓语,如:

Tractors have taken

the place of horses. 拖拉机已经取代了马。

注意:instead of 后可接ing 形式,介词短语等。如:

 He came by bus instead of by train. 他是乘汽车来的而不是乘火车。

He wanted to go to a film instead of staying at home. 他想去看电影而不是呆在家里。



ist 表示“坚持要求(某人或主语本身)干某事”;suggest 表示“建议”,以及order, demand, request, advise…,这些动词后的宾语从句常用虚拟语气形式。


He insisted that he(should)be sent to the poorest place to work.



1、in prep. 在……之后。用于“将来一段时间之后”。

①Your birthday is in two weeks’time. 你的生日还有两周。

②I’ll finish the work in 3 days/ in 3 days’time. 这两项工作我3天后完成。


①I’ll be back in 3 days. 3天后我回来.

②I’ll be back after the New year. 新年后我回来。

in a word=in one word 总之

In a word, I don’t trust him. 总这,我不信任他。

Tom is brave, careful and calm. In a word, he is admirable.


in charge of   prep.担任……,管理……,负责

in the charge of a person?in a person’s charge由(某人)照料(管理)

take charge of 担任……,接管


in praise of 为……颂扬、歌颂;in honour of 为纪念,为了向某人表示敬意;

in memory of 为了怀念;in favour of 赞同,支持;in place of 代替;in charge of 负责;

in search of 寻找;in need of 需要。



①This is a book which sings high praise for pioneers.

This is a book ________ ________ ________ pioneers.

②They startd off at once to look for the missing girl.

They started off at once________ ______ _______the missing girl.

③We all agree to your plan.

 We are all ______ ________ ______your plan.

④We usr plastics instead of wood or metal.

We use plastics_______ ________ ________ wood or metal.

Key:①in, praise, of           ②in, search, of         ③in, favour, of           ④in, place, of

3、in one’s opinion 在某人看来,依照某人的看法

也可以说:in one’s personal opinion

例:have a good/ high opinion of sb. = think/ speak well/ highly of sb.



1、lay the table/lay breakfast


lay the table 单纯指“摆桌子(准备吃饭)”,可用于早、中、晚三餐的任何一餐的场合,

如:I only laid the table. 我只是摆好了餐桌(准备吃饭)。

而“lay breakfast”则很明确地表示“摆桌子(吃早餐)”。

如:I have laid lunch. 我已经摆好午餐的桌子了。

He has laid supper. 他已把晚餐的桌子摆好了。

2、lend to 引导;引起,造成,导致

①Labour leads to happiness. 劳动使人幸福。

②Where does this road lead to? 这条路通向哪里?

 His carelessness led to his failre. 他的粗心导致失败。

Too much work or too little rest often leads to illness. 过度工作或很少休息经常导致疾病。

Difference of opinion led to a heated argument. 意见分歧导致了激烈的争论。


lecture 多指学术方面的“演讲,报告”;

speech 指在公众面前做的经过准备的较正式的“演说,发言”;

talk 是一般性的“讲话,谈话”;

report 指正式的“报告,报道,汇报”。


①give a lecture         ②attend a lecture       ③make a speech          ④give a talk

⑤receive a report       ⑥make a report         ⑦send in a report       ⑧a school report

key:①作演讲  ②出席演讲会  ③发表演说 ④发表讲话

⑤收到报告  ⑥作报告  ⑦呈交报告  ⑧成绩报告单




lack money/courage 缺钱/ 缺少勇气;lack(in) experience/courage 缺少经验/勇气;

have no lack of... 不缺乏;for lack of…因为缺乏。

对比:He is lacking in courage./He lacks courage. 他缺少勇气。

The plants died for lack of water. 因为缺水植物枯死了。



She________ ______ ______to get the job.


They______ ______ _______ of money but_______skilled workers.

Key: ①lacked,the,experience  ②have,no,lack,lack



recently 是书面语,常被quite,just,but, very,only等词所修饰,以加强语气。主要用于肯定句中。如:

He’s only recently begun billogy. 他只是最近才开始学生物。

I didn’t know it until quite recently. 我一直到最近才知道。

Lately 常用于口语,指与现在有联系的一段时间,常见于否定句或疑问句中。如:

 I haven’t seen him lately. 我近来没有看到他。

3、lie—lied—lied—lying       lie—lay—lain—lying       lay—laid—laid—laying


例:I have never lied in my life.

Obviously he was lying.

(2)lie—lay—lain—lying,意思是: “躺、平放、卧”“位于”。

例:The children lay on the grass, looking at the beautiful sky.

The look is lying on the desk.



例:She laid the baby gently down on the bed.

The hen laid an egg yesterday.



lie in

短语动词lie in 意为“在于”。如:

The way out lies in the development of education.

like 用法小结

1、like 用法小结

(1)like 用做动词(及物)通常表示一般的“喜欢”,为口语用词,词意没有love感情强烈,反义词为hate。

①like + n.(pron.)

 Does Li Ming like bananas? 李明喜欢吃香蕉吗?

Do you like it?  你喜欢它吗?

②like + v.-ing(动名词)

Do you like working in China? 你喜欢在中国工作吗?

③like + to + v.(不定式)

I like to keep busy.我喜欢生活得紧张。

④would like(=would love)后接名词、代词或不定式,多用于有礼貌地提出要求,意为“想要、愿意”。

Would you like something to drink? 你想喝点什么吗?

I’d like two sweaters for my daughter.我要给我女儿买两件运动衫。

Would you like to come? 你愿意来吗?

⑤How do you like...?(=What do you think of...?)此句型用于询问对方对某人(物)的看法,意为“你觉得……怎么样?”

How do you like China? 你觉得中国怎么样?

(2)like 用做介词,意为“像……一样”,反义词为unlike。

①like 后接名词、代词或动名词作宾语。

Don’t throw it like that. 别那样扔它。

They’re round,like the moon. 它们是圆的,像月亮一样。

Walking on the moon is just like flying. 在月球上行走就像飞一样。

②look like意为“看起来像……一样”。

It looks like a chicken. 它看起来像一只鸡。

③feel like+v-ing意为“想……”。

I had a little,but I don’t feel like eating. 我吃了一点,可我不想吃。

④What’s the weather like...?(=How’s the weather like...?)此句型用来询问天气情况,意为“……天气怎么样?”。

What’s the weather like in Australia now? 现在澳大利亚天气情况怎么样?

It’s (just)like sb. to do sth.


It is just like her to think of others before thinking of herself.

like crazy


In order to finish his work on time, he worked like crazy.


Most youths are crazy about famous stars.


be in love with sb. 该短语意为“爱上某人”,其中的be可用fall替换,即fall in love with sb. 也意为“爱上某人”。如:

Henry was/fell in love with Mary.

make love to sb. 向某人示爱


in use 在使用中;out of use (目前)不使用;

come into use 开始被使用;go out of use 不再使用。



look back upon/on 回顾,回想过去

I like to look back upon my high-school days.  我喜欢回忆我高中时的岁月。

Perhaps some day it will be pleasant to look back upon these days. 


look as if /as though 看起来好像        look around环视四周       look after照顾;照看   

look out当心        look behind回头看       look through浏览

look down向下看      look up 向上看;查寻        look into调查;研究

2、look at/stare at/glance at

look at 指把眼睛转向目标,译成“看,看着”;glance at 指“匆匆一看,一瞥”;

stare at表示由于吃惊、害怕或深思而张大眼睛看,译成“盯着,注视,凝视”。对比:

She stared at the footprint,full of fear.她两眼盯着脚印,满心恐惧。

I’d like to look at your photo.我想看看你的照片。

The middle-aged woman glanced at her watch and hurried off.


注意搭配:stare straight at 直直地盯着;stare into space 凝视着空中;

stare sb.

in the face 盯着某人的脸看;stare sb.up and down 上下打量某人;

glance over(through)a letter 匆匆阅读一封信;glance round a room 匆匆环视房间;

at a glance 一看就……;give/take a  glance at 对……匆匆一看。



She was ________ ________the distance,thinking.


She ______shyly______him form behind her fan.

Key:①staring,into  ②glanced,at

3、look forward to sth.(doing sth.)渴望、企盼……

①They are looking forward to getting news of him.


②We should look forward,and don’t give up.




repair 指将受损、故障、用旧之物修理好,如用于修补机械方面的东西多用repair。如:

Ask him to repair my watch/TV set. 请他给我修一下手表/电视机。

The garage charged forty dollars to repair the car. 修车行修理这辆车收了四十美元。

repair 还可作“弥补补偿”讲。如:

How can I repair the damage I have caused? 我怎样才能弥补我造成的损失?

 I’d like to repair our differences. 我想我们应该重归于好。

mend 指将打破、撕碎或用坏之物修补完整,“


His clothes

 need mending. 他的衣服该补了。

She mended the broken jar with cement. 她用水泥把破碎的缸补好了。

mend 还可意为“改正纠正治愈使恢复健康”等。如:

The prisoner is mending his way. 囚犯在改过自新。

It is never too late to mend. 亡羊补牢,犹未为晚。


1)用作名词:by mistake 由于差错;make mistakes 出错; make no mistake 没出错;

correct one’s mistake 改正错误;recognize one’s mistake 承认错误;

make mistake about sb./sth. 误会(解)某人/事

2)用作动词:mistake one’s meaning 误解某人的意思;be mistaken 弄错,错误的;

mistake sb./sth.for 错当成,误以为是……。


for a moment 一会儿;in a moment 一会儿之后;a few moments alter 过一会儿;a moment ago 刚才;

at any moment 随时,立刻;at the moment 此刻,现在; at that very moment 就在那时。

注意:the moment 此结构中,the moment 用作连词,引导一时间状语从句,表示“一……就”。

相同意思和用法的表达形式还有:the minutethe instant 和the second。如:


lephone me the moment you get the results.

The moment the teacher entered the classroom,the students stood up. 老师一进教室,学生们就站起来了。



The chairman will be here______ ______ ______,so you’d better not be off.


Just______ ______,he will come here______ a m


Key:①at,any,moment   ②a, moment,in



1)用作名词:by mistake 由于差错;make mistakes 出错;make no mistake 没出错;

correct one’s mistake改正错误;recognize one’s mistake 承认错误;

make mistake about sb./sth. 误会(解)某人/事

2)用作动词:mistake one’s meaning 误解某人的意思;be mistaken 弄错,错误的;

mistake sb./sth.for 错当成,误以为是……。


for a moment 一会儿;in a moment 一会儿之后;a few moments alter 过一会儿;a moment ago 刚才;

 at any moment 随时,立刻;at the moment 此刻,现在;at that very moment 就在那时。

注意:the moment此结构中,the moment 用作连词,引导一时间状语从句,表示“一……就”。

相同意思和用法的表达形式还有:the minute, the instant 和the second。如:

Telephone me the moment you get the results.

The moment the teacher entered the classroom

,the students stood up.




The chairman will be here______ ______ ______,so you’d better not be off.


Just______ ______,he will come here______ a moment.

Key:①at,any,moment   ②a, moment,in


twelve more steps意为“再有12个台阶”

We must climb twelve more steps to the top.

基数词+ more + n.s.= another + 基数词+ n.s.如:

There are 3 more chairs /another 3 chairs for dinner.

more and more… 越来越……

Our school is becoming more and more beautiful. 我们的校园变得越来越美丽了。

more or less 或多或少;大体上;大约

①—How far is your family away from here? 你家离这里多远?

—Ten kilometres ,more or less. 大约10公里。

②The work is more or less finished. 这项工作大体上完成了。

no longer 不再。通常置于行为动词之前,动词be之后,偶尔也置于全句的末尾。

①He no longer lives here.他不住这里了。

②Don’t worry about her. After all she is no longer a child .别为她担心。毕竟她不再是个小孩子了。

③I shall wait no longer.我不等了。

more than 不仅仅是,不只是

如:Flag is more than a piece of cloth. It stands for a state.

More than 与one 连用,构成词组more than one 后接单数的名词和动词。如:

 More than one person is going to lose his job.

no longer

1、no longer

no longer 常可相当于not…any longer. not 用来否定谓语, any longer 置于句末。上面的句子可分别改作:

①He don’t live here any longer.

②Don’t worry about her. After all she isn’t a child any longer.

③I shall not wait any longer.

注意:no more(相当于not…any more)也是“不再”的意思。no longer是把现在的情况和过去对比,时态以现在时为多,有时也用过去时或将来时;no more 指今后如何,通常用将来时态。

I can no longer stand it. 我再也受不了。

②I will go there no more. 我再也不到那地方去了。


He is no more/no longer ill.他的病好了。

另外:涉及数量或程度时要用no more; 谈到时间表示once but not now(有一度、曾经那样,但现在不了时),要用no longer.

There is no more bread. 没有面包了。

②I no longer support the Conservative Party. 我不再支持保守党了。(曾经支持过)

no more than:only 仅仅;只有。具有感情色彩,强调“少”。与no less than 相对。

Not more than:less than;at most 不到;至多。说明客观事实。与not less than相对。

①He has no more than 20 yuan. 他只有20元钱。(强调钱“少”)

He has not more than 20 yuan. 他有不到20元钱。(说明客观事实)

②No less than 50 people attended the meeting. 参加会议的人不少于50多个。(强调“多”)

Not less than 50 people attended the meeting. 参加会议的有50多人。(说明客观事实)


①you are no taller than I. 你并不比我高。(我们两人都矮)

you are not taller than I. 你不如我高。

②This ques

tion is no more diffcult than that one. 这个问题并水比那个(容易的)问题难。

This question is not more diffcult than that one. 这个问题不如那个问题难。

2、no more than/not more than/no more...than/not more...than

no more than 意为“仅仅、只不过”,相当于only。它与数字连用时,意为“仅仅至多”,强调“少”,带有说话者的感情色彩。如:

 I am no more than a teacher. 我只是个教师而已。

There were no more than two hospitals in this city before liberation.解放前,这座城市里只有两家医院(表示很少)

not more than 后面接数词时,表示“不超过、最多”的意思。用来说明情况,并含有“少”之意,也不带有说话者的主观色彩。如:

There are not more than ten minutes left. 最多只剩下10分钟了。(表示客观事实)

no more+形容词(副词)原级+than”意为“两者同样不”,前面和后面同时否定,带有感情色彩。如:

This tool is no more useful than that one. 这件工具与那件工具一样没有用。(两者都没有用)

not more+形容词(副词)原级+than”意为“A不比B更……”。这是比较级的正规用法,表示比较的事实,两者都肯定。如:

This tool is not more useful than one. 这样工具不及那件工具有用。(两者都有用)

3、must + have + 过去分词


—They quarrelled quite often and whenever they quarrelled they threw glasscup at each other.

—They must have broken a lot of glasses.




voice 是可数名词,指人发出的声音。如:

I didn’t recognize John’s voice on the telephone. 在电话里我没听出约翰的声音。

We could hear the children’s voices in the garden. 我们能听见花园里孩子们的声音。

sound 词意最广泛,它包括各种性质的声响,不论大声还是小声,音乐或噪音,有意义的还是无意义的声音均可,多作可数名词。如:

A joyful sound came from the distance. 远处传来欢快的声音。

The door was open, and the sound came from the kitchen. 门开着,声音是从厨房传来的。

noise 泛指一切在的、杂乱的或令人讨厌的杂声和吵闹声,既指单一的刺耳、尖锐、磨擦的声响,也可指混合在一起不协调的声响,不论是由人或物所发出的,可以是可数的,也可以是不可数的。如:

Loud noise can make people ill. 大的噪音能使人生病。

Don’t make such a loud noise. 别弄出这么大的声响。


necessary主要用于两种句型:①It’s necessary for sb. to do sth. 某人有必要做某事

②It’s necessary that…  有必要……

注意:that从句中谓语用should + 动词原型,should 可省略。

另外:不能使用sb. is necessary to do 结构,因为通常是“某事或做某事有必要”,而非人有必要。

误:He is necessary to return home this afternoon.

正:It’s necessary for him to return home this afternoon.




Key:①It’s necessary for him to improve his method of study。

/It’s necessary that the should improve his method of study。

②If necessary,we’ll employ more men for the harvest.


①Not all of them go in for sports. 他们并不都喜欢运动。

相当于:All of them don’t go in for sports.

或:Some of them go in for sports,but others don’t.

②I don’t like both of the novels. 这两部小说我并不都喜欢。

相当于:I like only of the novels.

③You can’t get this kind of vegetables everywhere. 这种疏菜你并不是在哪里都能买到。

相当于:You can only get this kind of vegetables somewhere.

如果表示全部否定则应用:neither(两者)/none(多者)/no one/nobody/nothing/nowhere.

①None of them go /goes in for sports. 他们都不喜欢运动。

②I like neither of the novels. 这两部小说我都不喜欢。

③You can get this kind of vegetables nowhere. 在哪里你也买不到这种疏菜。


1、not…but…   不是……而是……

Shakespeare was not a musician but a writer. 莎士比亚不是音乐家而是作家。

They neet not money but time.他们所需要的不是钱,而是时间。

Not the students but the teacher is hoping to visit the Great Wall.


He can’t read or write in English,but can speak English fluently.


2、not just…but…  not only…but(also)…(also可省略)不仅/不但……而……


①Not just you but he likes the country music very much. 不但你,而且他也很喜欢乡村音乐。


 can not just drive but repair a car. 他不仅会开而且会修车。

③I like not just pop music but country music. 我不仅喜欢流行音乐,而且喜欢乡村音乐。

④This book is not just interesting but also useful. 这本书不但有趣而且有用。

⑤Lu Xun is famous not just in China but in the whole world. 鲁迅不只在中国有名,而且在全世界都很著名。

3、not…until 三种句型



The mother didn’t leave the room until the child fell asleep.

I didn’t know the truth of it until the next day.


Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.

 Not until the next day did I know the truth of it.


It was not until the child fell asleep the mother left the room.

It was not until the next day that I knew the truth of it.


①在not…until句型中,主句中的动词均为短暂性动词,如leave,start等。而在until的肯定句型中,主句的谓语动词一定要用延续性动词,因为until作为连词和介词意为up to the time when; up to“直到……时”。如:


We walked until the edge of the forest.(误)

Our classroom can hold until fifty students.(误)

now that/due to/because of/owing to/nowhere

1、now that/due to/because of/owing to/nowhere

now that 作“既然”讲时,相当于since。now that中的that 可省去。如:

Now(that)you are well again, you can travel. 你既然恢复了健康,就能够旅行了。

due to 作“起因于、归功于”时,常作表语或跟在名词后,如:

His failure is due to the fact that he lacks experience. 他的失败源于他缺少经验。

Mistakes due to carelessness may have serious results. 粗枝大叶造成的错误可能带来严重后果。

The team’s success was largely due to her efforts. 该队的成功在很大程度上是由于她的努力。

because of “由于、因为”,在句中作状语或表语。如:

Lincoln is admired because of his good leadership.林肯由于其出色的领导而受到人们的赞赏。

His anger is because of your bad deeds.他是因你的失礼行为而生气。

owing to “由于、因为”,常在现代英语中与because of, due to换用。如:

 Owing to unfavourable weather, I was unable to carry on with it. 由于天气不好,我不能把它进行下去。

nowhere 放在句首,该句应使用倒装结构。

Nowhere is there a place for him to settle down.

类似的副词还有hardly scarcely, no sooner,seldom, never, little等。

Of + n.(抽象句词)相当于该名词相应的形容词,在句中可用作表语或补语。

能用于该句型的名词有:help/ use/ value/ importance等。其对应的形容词分别为:helpful/ useful/ valuable/ important.

This book is of great use/ very useful. 这本书很有用。

②His advice is of great value/ very valuable. 他的建议很有价值。

③English is of great importance/ very important to us. 英语对我们来说很重要。


offer sb.sth./offer sth.to(for)sb. 为某人提供、提出;offer to do sth. 主动提出做某事;

offer sth. 提供,提出;offer sb.sth.for(money) 卖给某人要多少钱;offer sb.(money)for sth 出钱买东西。

短语:offer advice/suggestions/congratulations/the price 提出劝告/建议/表示祝贺/出价;

make an offer of help 主动提供帮助;accept one’s offer 接受某人的建议



He ______his seat______ the old man./He _____the old man his seat.


My deskmate_____ ______ _____ me with my English.


Someone will _____ you 10,000 yuan______ your house.

Key:①offered,to /offered  ②offered,to ,help  ③offer,for

3、not only…but also

①连续两个并列主语时,谓语和but also后的一致(即就近原则)

②Not only…but also…构成一倒装句式(强调状语或谓语时用;强调主语时不用倒装)。

①Not only you but also he likes playing football.


②Not only can he sing, but also he can dance well.



one after another

1、one after another 一个地,表示数量多并连续出现

School was over and students went out of the school gate one after another.


对比:one by one表示按顺序逐个进行或出现

Don’t hurry! You should enter the office one by one.


拓展:by and by 一点一点地,逐渐地    little by little 一点一点地

step by step 一步一步地,循序渐进地

2、one…the other/some…others/some…the others

one…the other 相当于one…one,表示两者中的“一个。另一个”;

some…others 表示许多中的“一些,另外一些”;

 some…the others 表示“一些,其余所有的”。对比:

 He has two companise. One is in China and the other is in the States.


In winter, some birds will fly away, and others wills stay here.


Some stamps are new, and the others are all ones.



①Some people like to stay at home on Sunday,but _______like to go to the cinema.

A.another        B.other      C.others       D.other one

②Of the three foreign guests, one is from London,_______ __two are from New York.

key:①C    ②B

3、or else = other wise = if not否则

Hurry up or else you’ll be late. 快点,否则人会迟到的。

Study hard or else you won’t pass the exam. 努力学习,否则你会考试不及格的。

Put on more clothes or else you’ll catch a cold. 多穿些衣服,否则你会感冒的。




open a door/ window/ a small shop/ one’s hand/ one’s eyes/ one’s mouth/ fire

开门/ 开窗/ 开一家小商店/ 张开手/ 睁开眼/ 张开嘴/ 开火;

be opened to traffic通车;open up开采(发)

Now,he opens a small factory of his own. 现在他自己办了个厂。

Open the door, please! 请开门!


keep open 开着门;be open 开门、开业;cut…open 切开;leave the door open 开着门;

 in the open air 在野外;an open secret 公开的秘密;keep one’s eyes open 睁眼。

Don’t keep the door open. 别让门开着(即:请把门关上)。

3) be open to对……开放

Many school libraries are open to children on Sundays. 不少学校的图书馆周日给孩子们开放。


①John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes________.(MET’92)

A.open                      B.to be opened

C.to open                   D.opening

②Some new oilfields ________since 1976.

A.were opened up            B.has been opened up

C.have been opened up       D.had been opened up

③The computer center, _________ last year,is very popular among the students in this school.

A.open                      B.opening

C.having opened             D.opened

Key:①A ②C ③D

2、open up


open up = open the door 开门

open up the parcel 打开包裹


A beautiful view opened up before us. 一幅美景展现在我们面前。


open up a new situation / a bright future / more waste land



She never opened up to me on the subject. 关于那个问题,她从未对我开诚布公。

3、orderorder food   叫食物                             order n.&vt./vi.  订购……

place an order for sth.  订购……            order sth.from…  向……订购……

order sb.sth. ?order sth.for sb.  为某人订购……

I have ordered you some new clothes.

pass 短语归纳

1、pass 短语归纳

pass sth.down 把某物一代一代传下去;pass sb. sth./pass sth.to sb. 把某物递给某人;

pass the exam/ test/ law 通过考试/ 测验/ 法律;pass sth.on 将某物传、交给某人;

 pass away 逝世;pass by 路过,忽视

注意:past 是介词“过,经过”或名词“过去”;passed 是pass的过去式和过去分词。如:

half past six六点半;in the past few years在过去的几年里;Two weeks passed.两周的时间过去了。

He walked past the gate.他从大门口走过。



His mother _________ __________ last year.


This ring_________ __________ _________ __________in my family.


__________the book_________ ________me when you’ve finished it.


When the young man heard the news. He________ _________with the shock.

Key:①passed, away    ②has, been, passed, down      ③Pass, on, to       ④passed, out

pass…(to…) 将……递给,传达

Please pass me the bread and butter. 请递给我面包奶油。

Pass the word to him that Napolean will come himself. 把拿破仑要亲自来的消息告诉他。


Because of the large crowd in the street the truck was unable to pass.



Nobody can go into the hall without a pass. 没有通行证,任何人不准进入大厅。

2、pay for/pay off

pay for 付……的货款,为……付代价

pay off 全部还清,偿请(借款)

①Did you pay 300 yuan to him for that bicycle?②I have just paid off my loan from the bank.

②You’ll have to pay for your mistakes.


a driving permit


You won’t get into the conference hall without a permit.



perform 是词“履行,表演”,而performance 是词“表演,演出”。如:

 perform a task/an operation/one’s duties/a play/a part做工作/做手术/尽责任/上演一出戏/演一个角色;

perform to sb. 对某人表演;give a performance演 出;

对比:act/play a part 扮演角色;put on a play 上演一出戏



They always________their experiments_________great patience.


What play_______ _______ _______tonight?


The singer has never________in Beijing_______.

Key:①perform,with   ②will,be,performed    ③performed,before

perform exercises to music.

短语意为“伴随音乐做体操”,从中可知“do sth. to music”为“伴随音乐做某事”。如:

She likes dancing to music.她喜欢随着音乐跳舞。


ask for permission 请求许可; ask sb.for permission to do sth. 请求某人允许做某事;

ask permission to do sth. 请求得到允许做某事;give sb.permission to do sth. 允许某人做;

with one’s permission 经某人允许;without one’s permission 未经允许;

如:You have to ask the teac

her for permission to do that.


You have to ask permission to go there.



No permission has _______ for anybody to enter the building. (MET’88)

A.been given               B.given  C.to give                 

 D.be giving



(1)就我个人来说(= in my pe

rsonal opinion),用于表示个人的意见,通常于句首。

Personally, I don’t see much difference between the two.



The manager went personally to the hospital to see the worker who was seriously ill.


拓展:person     / c. / 人

personal           adj. 个人的

personality        / c. u. / 个性,品格;人物



praise 可用作名词或动词,均表示“赞扬表扬”。如:

sing high praise for 高度赞扬;praise sb. for 因……而赞扬其人;give praise to sb. 表扬某人;

win high praise 受到高度赞扬;receive praise from sb. 得到某人的称赞。



The headmaster_________ _________ ________ ________his brave deed.


He often helps others, so he __________ __________ _________his classmates.

Key: ①sang, high, praise, for     ②receives praise, from


practical 指“实践的”,“实际的”,“讲求实际的”,如:

practical activities 实践活动   practical work 实际工作

She is a practical woman. 她是位讲求实际的妇女。

Real “真实的”,“实在的”,表示实际存在的意义,如:

real silk 真丝           his real name 他的真名

true “真的”,指某种事实,故事,消息,信息,朋友等是真的,如:

 a true story 一个真实的故事

3、play   vt.n. 弹,奏;打,玩

play the piano 弹钢琴        play the music演奏音乐

play basketball 打篮球        play games 玩游戏

play the game  守信用        play cards 打牌

play with 拿……来玩        

play an important part it 起重要作用  

at play 在玩耍;在赌博       at the play 看戏



prepare a plan/cards/a meal/one’s lessons 准备一个计划/卡片/一顿饭/备课;

prepare sb.sth./prepare sth.for sb. 为某人准备某物;prepare to do sth. 准备做某事;

 prepare sb.for 使某人对……进行准备;make preparations for 为做准备:


①prepare one’s lessons(指教师)备课;prepare for one’s lossons (指学生)准备功课

②prepare for “为……做准备”,侧重指动作;be(get)prepared for “对某事从物质上,心理上做好了准备”是系结构,表示状态。对比:We are preparing for the final exam我们正在为期末考试做准备。/We are well prepared for the final exam.这次期末考试我们已完全做好了准备。



Father _______ _____ a good lunch./Father ______ a good lunch______ us.


Tomorrow is Children’s Day. The children are ______ _____ _____climbing.


We must_______ all the people______ the possible flood.


The Foreign Minister ______ not______for such questions.

Key:①prepared,us/prepared,for   ②preparing, to ,go   ③prepare,for  ④was,prepared

prepare sb.for… 该短语意为“使某人对……进行准备”。如:

 Mother is preparing me for my journey.

prepare 作为动词,既是及物动词,又是不及物动词且常与for连用。如:

 Mother asked my sister to prepare lunch.


be present at 出席

How many people were present at the meeting? 多少人出席了会议?

拓展:present (1)n.礼物

What present do you want for Christmas this year? 今年圣诞节你想要什么礼物?


Now that the sports meet is over, our principal will present the prize.



I’m not going to buy a car at the present high prices. 以目前的高价,我不打算买小汽车了。

(4)presently(adv.) = soon

She will be here presently. 她不久就会来。


 at the present time = at present目前,现在      for the present暂时

3、pleasure  n.荣幸;愿意                                               

It’s my pleasure to help you. 愿意为你效劳。

It’s a pleasure for me to be invited to the party. 应邀参加晚会我深感荣幸。


1、price  n.价格

常用结构:(1)at a high/low price 以高价/低价

 He is very happy because he bought a new car at a low price.



—Your new car only cost you 20,000 dollars. It’s really cheap.


—Yes, the price is very low indeed.


(3)提问price时应用what(多少)               。

What’s the price of that dress? 那件衣服多少钱?

相当于:How much is that dr


How much需用what提问“多少”的还有population/area/size/length/width/height/weight等名词。


throw(cast, put)sb.into(to)prison, take sb.to prison 把某人关入监狱.

区别:in prison与in the prison前者表示“坐牢、服法、服刑”;后者表示“在一所监狱”,有可能是在看望囚犯,也可能是监管人员。

Tom’s brother was put(thrown、cast)into prison because of murderer,and he will be in prison for thirty years.




Space research has progressed greatly.


(2)n. make great / little / no / much progress

He has made rapid progress in English this term.



Tom is not making much progress at school.


put on/pull on/wear/have on/dress/in

1、put on/ pull on/ wear/ have on/ dress/ in

(1) put on pull on 穿上戴上。相当于及物动词,以衣物作宾语,着重于穿、戴的动作。put on 为普通用语;pull on多用于穿袜子、戴手套或比较随便地穿上。

①It’s cold outside.You’d better put on your hat. 外面很冷,你最好戴上帽子。

②She put/pulled on her coat and went out of the room hurriedly. 她穿上大衣,匆忙地走了。

(2)wear have on 穿着戴着。相当于及物动词,有衣物作宾语,着重于穿、戴的状态。have on不用于进行时态。

①He always wears/has on black shoes. 她一直穿着黑鞋。

②She is wearing/has on a red coat. 她穿着红大衣。

(3)dress 穿。可用作及物动词,以人作宾语,即dress sb.(给某人穿衣);也可用作不及物动词。既可强调动作,又可表示状态,表示状态时常用be dressed in 结构。此外dress还可用作名词。

①Mary is dressing her daughter. 玛丽正给她女儿穿衣服。

②She usually dresses well. 她总是穿得很好。

③He is dressed in a black jacket. 他穿着黑上衣。

(4)in 穿着戴着。是介词,以衣物或表示颜色的名词作宾语,表示状态。构成的介词短词可作表语或定语。

①My brother is in a blue jacket. 我弟弟穿着蓝上衣。

②The boy in a blue jacket is my brother. 穿蓝上衣的孩子是我弟弟。

③My brother is in blue. 我弟弟穿着蓝衣服。

2、put out 使熄灭,扑灭,吹灭;发出;生产,出版

It book the firefighters more than three hours to put out the big fire.


The book will be put out soon. 这本书将很快出版。

The police have put out a general call to the public. 警察局向群众发出通知。

The company put out 13 new machines every week. 这个公司每周生产13台机器。

The government will put out a new statement next week. 政府下一周将发表一项新的声明。

常用词组:put down 记下,写下,镇压        put up 举起,张贴,修建

put on 上演,穿上,戴上         put away 储存,收拾起来

put aside 存储,留下        put off 推迟,延期        put up with 忍受

3、Plenty of  许多;大量


①There is plenty of rain here in china. 在中国这个地方雨量充足。

②Plenty of trees have been planted along the road. 路旁种了很多树。




raise one’s hand/ head/ eyes/ a stone/ the flag/ one’s pay/ the price/ one’s voice

举起手/ 抬起头/ 往上看/ 举起石头/ 升旗/ 提高工资/ 提价/ 声音大点

rise 是不及物动词,不能接宾语,无被动语态,表示“上升,升起,起身,起立,起床,增长”等意义。如:

river rise 河水涨; price rise 物价上涨;rise from one’s seat 从座位上站起来;rise early 早起。

短语:raise a shout of joy 高兴地喊起;get a rise /raise 增加工资;rise up 起义,奋起反抗;

raise chickens/ horses/ children/ a question  养鸡/ 养马/ 养育孩子/ 提出问题。



He stood there watching the flag_______ ________.


The price________ ________to 10 dollars./The price_______ to 10 dollars.


Soon steam can be seen __________ from the wet clothes.


He asked the boss fo_________ ________.

Key:①being /raised       ②was raised /rose       ③rising        ④a /rise(raise)

2、realize  vt.意识到;实现

realize one’s mistake  认识到自己的错误

realize one’s meanings 领会某人的意思

I didn’t realize that my English was limited until I was abroad.


She managed to realize her dream at last.



for this/that reason  因为这个/那个原因;for no good reason  没有正当的理由;

for a simple reason  因为一个很简单的原因;for some political reasons  因为政治原因;

for the reason of health  由于健康原因;give a reason  提供理由。



①His reason for being late was________he missed the bus.

②The reason__________he didn’t come to school was that he was ill.

③The doctor gave  reason________ couldn’t explain the failure of the operation.

Key :①that   ②why     ③which/ that

reach sth./reach for sth.



a bit/ a little→slightly→rather→much→completely→quite

2)rather 修饰形容词加名词时,若有冠词a或an , 则rather在冠词前、后皆可。如:

It was rather a cold day. = It was a rather cold day.


rather 表示不接受性,为否定意义;fairly 表示接受性,为肯定意义。如:

 It’s rather cold today.(不愉快)

It’s fairly warm today.(心中舒服)

4)rather +比较级;rather/ much/ far+too+adj./adv, 而fairly,quite ,very 则不能。如:I did rathre better in the exam.       That’s rather too difficult.

5)rather than  而不是 

如:He, rather than you, is to be punished. 是他而不是你要受惩罚。

I decided to write rather than (to)telephone. 我决定写信而不是打电话。


①would do sth. rather than do sth. = would rather do sth. than do sth.


②prefer to do sth . rather than do sth .(意义同上)

2、reach sth./ reach for sth.

(1)reach sth.表示“够得着某物”,reach是及物动词。如:

reach the top of the shelf 够得着架子顶部;reach the apple on the tree 够得着树上的苹果。

(2)reach for sth.表示“伸手(脚)去够某物”,其中的reach是不及物动词。

亦可替换成reach out for sth.或reach out one’s hand(foot)for sth.,意义相同。


The woods reach as far as the river. 树林子延伸到河边。

(4)短语:reach an agreement 达成协议;beyond/out of one’s reach 够不着,力所不及;

out of the reach of sb. 某人够不着;within one’s reach 够得着,力所能及。



He ______ ______ the stick but could not_______it.


You’d better have the food _______the boy’s ________.

Key:①reached, for, reach    ②within, reach


be ready to do sth.(=be willing to do sth.)乐意做某事

Tom is always ready to help others. 汤姆总是乐于助人。

If I’ve made any mistake, I’m ready to apologize. 如果我有错误,我愿意道歉。

refer to/refer…to

1、recognize  vt. 辨认出;承认

Do you recognize his hand writing? 你能认出他的笔迹吗?

They recognized him to be a great leader. 他们承认他是一位伟大领袖。

He didn’t recognize that he had made a big mistake. 他不承认自己犯下了大错。


reduce the number of 减少……的数量;

reduce the cost/ one’s weight the price/

speed   降低成本/ 减肥/ 降价/ 减速




The number of smokers has been reduced _________30%.


Now the cost of a bike has been reduced _______50 dollars.

Key:①by  ②to

3、refer to/refer…to

1)refer 可用作及物动词,用于refer…to,表示“将……提交给”。如:

 refer this problem to the schoo

l. 把这个问题提交学校。

refer the matter to the United Nations. 将这件事情提交联合国。

2)refer 表示 “谈到,涉及;查阅,参考,指”时是不及物动词,需用refer to结构。如:

The book which you referred to is not in the library. 你所指的那本书不在图书馆。

His report refers to the situation in the Middle East. 他的报告谈到中东的形势。

短语:refer to the map/ one’s notes/ the dictionary  查阅地图/ 参考笔记/ 查字典

注意:look up word in the dictionary 查字典

对比:refer to 指语言、内容与某人(物)有关;而point to表示用手指向某人(物)。如:

I didn’t know whom she was referring to. 我不知道她指的是谁。

She pointed to the map and explained to the students. 她指着地图给学生做出解释。



A friend of mine often ______ _______ Dr.Bethune when I was in Canada.


The two countries. _______the matter _______the United Nations.

Key:①referred,to        ②referred,to


1、rely on/ upon 相信,信赖

He relied on his parents’ advice. 他相信父母的劝告。

I rely on you to tell me all about it. 我要靠你把这件事的来龙去脉告诉我。

Such people are not to be relied on. 这样的人是靠不住的。

对比:rely on/ upon指由过去的经验,使人相信对方必定能完成所交代的事情;depend on指依赖别人的支持或援助;trust(in)指深信绝对不会发生被出卖或令人失望的事情。

I rely on his ability. 我相信她的能力。

She depends on her friends to make a decision. 她依靠朋友帮她做决定。

He is a man to be trusted. 他是一个可以信赖的人。

It depends on whether you want to do it or not. 这得看你是否想做。


(1)vi 剩下;(人)留下,逗留

The fact remains that she is a liar. 她是个说谎者的事实仍在。

They went off but she remained three days in that country.


(2)link v.(continue to be)+pred.(表语)(n./adj./pres. p. /past. p/ prep.p等)

The weather remains cold and wet. 天气依然寒冷潮湿。

Pollution in the city remains a problem. 这个城市的污染依然是个问题。

You can’t let your room remain like this. 你不能让房间一直这样。

①He remained silent at the meeting. 在会上他一言不发。

②His books remain very new because he hardly read them.


对比:remain 既指人逗留在一定场所,也指物逗留在一定场所或保持原来的形状或状态,或暗示纵使别人离去,自己仍然留下来。Stay会话用语,只表示人逗留在一定场所。

eg:Let’s stay here until he appears. 让我们留下来等他到来。

拓展:remaining adj.剩下的 the remaining money = the money left剩余的钱

remainings n.(复数)剩余(物),残骸,遗迹

the remains of ancient Rome 古罗马的遗迹

the remainder(of)=the rest(of)剩下的东西/其余的人


remove sth.to…把……移向……

remove it 去除;脱掉

remove sb.(sth.)from+n.


You should remove your coat in the warm room.



remind 表示“提醒,使记起,使想起”,可接复合宾语,that从句或与of连用;

remember 意为“记得(做)某事”,主语必须是人。如:

He reminded me to answer the letter as early as possible.

He reminded me that I would answer the letter as early as possible. 他提醒我尽早回信。

This photo reminds me of my childhood. 这张照片使我想起了我的童年。

Do you remember the advice I gave you? 你记得我给你的忠告吗?



This _______ _______ ______what we did together during our holidays.


I still______ _______ _______to Beijing when I was a child.

Key:①reminds,me,of      ②remember,being,taken




This  car needs a lot of repairs before you can use it. 这部汽车需要大修之后才能使用。

The repair of the ship cost much money. 这艘轮船的修理花了很多钱。

②短语:make repairs/do repairs  修理(必须用复数);under repair 在修理;be out of  repair失修


3、repair/mend/fix 三者的区别

①repair 多指修理的物体较庞大,构造较复杂或损坏严重的东西。如:

repair a bridge/ house/ car/ TV set/ watch  修桥/ 房子/ 汽车/ 电视/ 手表。


②mend 多用于指修理的物体较小,结构较简单的日常用具,或缝补衣服、袜子等。如:

mend a shoe/ sock/ basket/ box/ pen  补鞋/ 袜子/ 篮球/ 修补箱子/ 修钢笔。

③fix 是美国英语,可与repair替换。如:

fix a machine/ chair/ typewriter  修机器/ 椅子/ 打字机。



The swimming pool won’t be open today because they are_____.


This house has been____ ______ _____ for many years。


You can’t go through because the bridge is _____ _____.

Key:①making, repairs        ②out,of, repair       ③under repair或:being, repaired



reply 和 answer 均可解作“回答、答道”,但用法有别。

reply 用做不及物动词时,可用reply to sb./sth.;作及物动词后跟直接引语或宾语从句,但不能直接跟人或物作宾语。如:

Please reply to my question. 请回答我的问题。

He replied that he knew the news. 他回答说他知道这消息。

answer 用作及物动词,可直接跟名词或代词作宾语,而reply应加to才可接名词或代词。如:

He answered the examination paper quite well. 他考卷答得很好。

fail to reply to a question/letter 未能回答问题/回信


request 用作名词,也可用作动词,均表示“请求”。如:

make a request for… 请求、要求得到……;request sth. from sb. 向某人要求某物;

request that… (从句中应使用should型虚拟语气,should可省略);

 request sb.to do sth. 请求某人做某事。



The workers out of work______ ______ ______ ______help.


Students_______ ________not to touch anything in the lab.


My parents requested that______ ______ _______a second foreign language.

My parents_______me______ ______a second foreign language.

 Key:①made,a,request,for    ②are,requested    ③I,should,learn/requested,to,learn



①You should respect the teachers. 你们应尊敬老师。

②Everyone must respect the law. 人人都应守法


①We have been told to show respect for our elder. 父母教导我们必须尊敬长辈。

②My father sends his respects to your parents.我父亲向你父母问好。

run out/run out of


room,space 都可以用作不可数名词,表示“空间余地”。


常用短语:live a room

5 住在5号房间;three rooms 三个房间;in space 在太空;

take up much room 占很多空间;standing room 立足之地;


①There is much rooms for improvement in our work.

②There isn’t enough spaces in this classroom for 30 desks.

③The universe exists in the space, as we all know.

Key: ①改rooms为room    ②改spaces为space     ③去掉space前的the

2、run out/run out of

二者均表示“用完耗尽”,但run out 不及物,同give out, run short;

run out of 及物,相当于use up, run short of。

对比:Money is running out. 钱快用光了。

We’re running out of money. 我们的钱快用光了。

All the money has given out./All the money has been used up. 所有的钱已花光。

The oil is running short. 油快用完了。

He is running short of oil. 他快把油用完了。


Key:Two weeks passed, and their food ran out.

Two weeks pass

ed, and they ran out of the food.

Two weeks passed, and their food gave out.

Two weeks passed, and their food had been used up.

Two weeks passed, and their food ran short.

Two weeks passed, and they ran short of the food.


save 意为“救、挽救”,是普通而含义广泛的常用词。指通过救援不但使受害者(人、动物或物)能脱离危险或祸患,而且使其在今后能安全地生存下去。有时可与rescue通用。如:

He operated on her at once, and Edison’s mother was saved.

They fight against the enemy to save their country.

rescue 意为“救、营救、挽救”,多指在直接的危险或祸患中给予迅速而有效的救援,一般指救人。如:

Helicopters were sent to rescue them, but it was impossible for them to get close enough.

search/search for/look for


at sea 在航海中,在海上          at the sea 在海边


go to sea 当水手,当海员        go to the sea 到海边去

keep house  料理家务            keep the house 呆在家中不出门

in bed 睡着,躺在床上             in the bed 在床上

at play 在玩,正在游戏            at  the play 在看戏

2、search/search for/look for



They searched their homes without any reason. 他们毫无理由地搜查了他们的家。

They searched him but found nothing. 他们搜了他的身,但没有找到什么。

(2)search for 则指“搜寻、搜索某人或物”。如:

They searched for him eve

rywhere. 他们到处搜寻他。

The police searched the wood for the lost child. 警察在树林里寻找走失的孩子。

试比较:They searched his clothes. 他们搜查了他的衣服。(看是否藏有东西)

They searched for his clothes. 他们在搜寻他的衣服。(要找到衣服)

另外,search也可用做名词,in search of “寻找、寻求”是个常见短语。如:

The boys went in search of something to eat. 孩子们去找东西吃。

(3)look for 意为“寻找”,同search for意义大体相同。但search for 意味较强,用很大注意力搜寻。而look for则较为通俗,常用于日常用语。如:

I looked for my missing pen everywhere. 我到处找我丢失的那支笔。


see…off  为…送行

①Is anybody seeing you off? 有人送你吗?

②Tomorrdow I must go to the airport to see my brother off.


see sb. doing sth. 看到某人正在做某事(看到动作的一部分。)

see sb.

do sth. 看到某人做过某事(看到了动作的全过程。)

①I saw him crossing the treet. 我看到他正在过马路。

②I saw him cross the street. 我看到他过了马路。


He was seen to fall suddenly from the tree. 人们看到他突然从树上掉了下来。


1、send out 发出;放出

Some unknown flowers in the garden send out nice smell.


The sun sends out light and heat. 太阳发光发热。

send 构成的其他词组:

send away撵走;开除;解雇      send for 派人去叫(请)      send up 发射

2、sentence 短语归纳

sentence 用作名词或动词,有“宣判判决”之意。如:pass sentence on sb. 判某人的刑;

 announce sentence on sb. 宣布对某人的判决;serve one’s sentence 服刑;

be sentenced to hard labour 被判服苦役;sentence sb. to death 判某人死刑;

be sentenced to six months in prisom 被判处六个月监禁;

be under the sentence

of death/be sentenced to death 被判处死刑;

have sb. sentenced to death 判某人死刑;receive a sentence of two years 被判两年徒刑。



One murderer was______ ______ three years in prison and the other was sentenced_______ _________ .


The thief_______a sentence _______ 5 years in prison.

Key:①sentenced, to, to, death        ②received, of


(1)adj. 独自的、独立的、分别为不同的、各自的、分离的、分开的。

My little son wants a separate room. 我小儿子想要个单词。

I want to listen to your separate opinions. 我想听你们每个人自己的看法。

(2) t. ;vi. 使分开;分离;隔开。常与from 搭配。

Separate the bad apples from the good ones. 把坏苹果和好的分开。

England is separated from France by the Channel. 英吉利海峡把英国和法国分隔开。

We talked until midnight and then separated. 我们一直谈到半夜,然后才分手。

Nobody can separate Taiwan from China. 任何人也不能把台湾从中国分裂出去。

show off

1、show off

该短语动词意为“炫耀”,而show sb./sth.off 意为“显示……的优点”。如:

He is a man who is always showing off.

由show 构成的短语动词有:

show up 出现/出席,显眼;show…over/round 带……参观

show…in 领……进入;show…out 领/送……出去

如:Only three of the people we invited to the party didn’t show up.

1)用作名词:traffic signs 交通标志;road signs 路标;signs for the rest rooms 厕所标志;

signs of heart trouble 心脏病的迹象,signs of rain/earthquake 下雨/地震的预兆。

2)用作动词,表示“签名,作手势”。如:sign one’s name签名;sign to sb. 朝某人做手势;

sign the agreement 签署协议;sign to sb.to do sth. 做手势让某人干某事。



The president_______ ______ ______to the paper.


The policeman ________ ________ ________ _______.


is,name        ②singed,me,to,stop

3、single/not a single

single 是形容词,有“单一的,单个的,单身的,唯一的”意义;

not a single 表示“一个也没有”,起强调作用,位于句首时引起倒装。

如:remain single 尚未成婚;the single person 唯一的人;

 a single bed/ ticket/ man/ room    单人床/ 单程票/ 独身男子/ 单人房间

He didn’t make a single mistake in the exam./Not a single mistake did he make in the exam.




Key: ①Not a single person has been in the shop this morning.

②He’s the single person that can help us.



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